E-invoicing has been introduced in Poland more than a year ago, but only on a voluntary basis. In December 2022 the Polish Ministry of Finance published a draft law regarding mandatory e-invoicing in Poland with a planned commencement date of 1 January 2024. In February 2023 a new draft on the bill postponed the effective date of this obligation to 1 July 2024.
Optional e-invoicing in Poland
A new type of invoicing has been in operation in Poland on a voluntary basis since 1 January 2022, namely electronic invoices issued using the National e-Invoice System (KSeF). E-invoices are generated in xml-format by the local financial and accounting software in accordance with the logical structure published by the Polish Ministry of Finance, and then are sent to KSeF where the purchaser may download them after a verification process in which a unique number is assigned to each e-invoice. When implementing voluntary e-invoicing in Poland, the authorities announced that, as a second step, e-invoicing will become obligatory.
The first draft law on mandatory e-invoicing in Poland
On 1 December 2022 saw the Government Legislation Centre publish a bill to amend the VAT Act and certain other legislation, according to which, as of the beginning of 2024, e-invoicing in Poland will be obligatory. As compared to the current legislation, the solution proposed in the bill is wider in terms of entities obliged to use it and the subject matter covered. The main assumption behind implementing mandatory e-invoicing is to provide tax authorities with insight into all issued invoices and thus facilitate the detection of invoice irregularities. The currently used forms of invoice (paper or electronic, e.g. PDF files) will have marginal importance after the introduction of obligatory e-invoices.
Importantly, in accordance with the bill, electronic invoices will have to be obligatorily used by taxable persons based in Poland or having a fixed establishment in Poland. Entities not covered by the obligatory electronic invoicing system will be able to use e-invoices optionally or to continue issuing invoices based on the current Polish VAT Act (outside KSeF). These entities will also receive invoices from suppliers as agreed with them (including outside the KSeF system).
The e-invoicing requirement will cover the activities that currently require an invoice in accordance with the VAT Act. Therefore, as a rule, entities subject to the e-invoicing requirement will only issue invoices via KSeF. Any invoice issued by such entities outside KSeF will not be considered an invoice according to Polish VAT regulations. Only in the case of KSeF malfunction (after the failure is removed, there are seven days for sending invoices to KSeF) or a crisis (emergency related to geopolitical situation) can invoices be issued outside KSeF. A failure to comply with e-invoicing regulations will trigger severe penalties.
Latest updates and postponement of deadlines
After an intensive public consultation, on 22 February 2023 the Government Legislation Centre published a new draft of the bill. It provides a framework for implementation of the mandatory e-invoicing in Poland. The most important provisions that have changed over the previous version of the proposal:
- Commencement date of mandatory e-invoicing in Poland has been deferred from 1 January 2024 to 1 July 2024.
- New deadline for entities with VAT exemptions to use obligatory e-invoices will be 1 January 2025.
- New deadline until invoices issued via cash registers and of cash receipts will be treated as invoices will also be 1 January 2025.
- Commencement of penalties for issuance of e-invoices outside KSeF in breach of obligation, for issuance of e-invoices not in accordance with required template, and for failure to timely submit invoices issued during KSeF malfunction or in off-line mode will also be postponed to 1 January 2025.
- KSeF e-invoices will not be obligatory in the case of business-to-consumer transactions and motorway toll, bus, train etc. tickets.
- As of 1 July 2024 any invoice changes can only be made by issuing correcting invoices.
- The use of off-line mode in invoice issuance has been extended to include also unavailability of KSeF for reasons on the part of the taxable person – e-invoices to be issued offline according to required template and submitted to KSeF on next business day.
- More precise regulations on the use of exchange rates to translate the taxable amount and VAT on e-invoices – you can use the published midrate applicable on the last business day prior to the issuance date on the invoice. This rate can be used on condition the e-invoice is issued via KSeF not later than next day after it is issued through the accounting software.
- No changes to regulations on invoice issuance before chargeability of tax – e-invoices can still be issued even 60 days prior to the chargeable date.
Applying the mandatory e-invoicing in Poland also to persons having fixed establishments in the country for VAT purposes exceeds the range of entities first specified in the Council Implementing Decision, which allowed Poland to impose the e-invoicing obligation only on entities based in Poland. But according to unofficial information from the Polish Ministry of Finance, this obligation was later confirmed with the European Commission after the issue was raised during public consultations. It will be introduced together with measures supporting taxable persons in correctly determining if they have fixed establishments in Poland (plans are to publish official tax guidance or a public tax ruling).
If you would like to know more about e-invoicing in Poland, or need any tax advice regarding the country please visit the homepage of WTS&SAJA Sp. z o.o., the exclusive representative of WTS Global for Poland and contact their experts.